What Are Additives in Polymers?

The most common polymer additives are stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants and flame retardants. Stabilizers are added to prolong the useful life of a polymer formulation by protecting it from thermal and light-assisted oxidation.

Why additives are added in plastic?

To prevent plastics materials from becoming hard and brittle at low temperatures, or soft and sticky at high temperatures, additives are used to ‘design’ the plastics for its specific end use.

What are additives and fillers?

Additives and fillers are organic or inorganic compounds that are introduced into a plastic in order to change the properties of the plastic. While most plastics in their original form are impact resistant and long-lasting, they are often brittle, hard, combustible, or too heavy for the intended use.

What are the different types of plastic additives?

  • Plasticizers. Plasticizers improve the flexibility and durability of plastics.
  • Impact Modifiers.
  • Lubricants and Flow Promoters.
  • Fillers / Extenders.
  • Flame Retardants.
  • Antioxidants & Other Stabilizers.
  • Thickeners / Rheology Modifiers.
  • Tackifier Resins.

What additives are used in plastic filters?

Almost all commercial plasticizers are phthalate compound which contain dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and di-iso-octyl phthalate (DIOP). Adding these materials to PVC produces plasticized PVC (PPVC).

What are the additives used in polypropylene?

The main groups of additives customarily used in polymer formulations that can be analyzed and quantified by the GC–MS technique are, among others, antioxidants, UV stabilizers and absorbers, thermal stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, and flame retardants.

What additives are in polystyrene?

Common PS additives include antioxidants, UV stabilizers, lubricants, colour pigments, nucleating agents, and flame retardants (Smith and Taylor 2002). This complex mixture can vary depending on the manufacturer and end use.

What are the four additives when recycling a plastic?

To deliver what the customer is asking for, recyclers can use additives such as peroxides, antioxidants, chain extenders, elastomers, colorants, performance modifiers and nucleators to restore diminished properties or to compensate for undesirable attributes.

What is filler in composites?

Filler materials are particles added to resin or binders (plastics, composites, concrete) that can improve specific properties, make the product cheaper, or a mixture of both. The two largest segments for filler material use is elastomers and plastics.

What is the function of filler?

Fillers are materials whose function in concrete is based mainly on size and shape. They can interact with cement in several ways; to improve particle packing and give the fresh concrete other properties, and even to reduce the amount of cement in concrete without loss of strength.

What are plasticizers made of?

What are they made of? Plasticizers are produced by a reaction of an alcohol with an acid such as adipic acid, phthalic anhydride, and so forth. The choice of alcohol and acid will determine the type of ester that can be produced and hence the kind of plasticizer.

Why fillers are used in composite materials?

Fillers can improve mechanical properties including fire and smoke performance by reducing organic content in composite laminates. Also, filled resins shrink less than unfilled resins, thereby improving the dimensional control of molded parts.

What is fillers and give one reason why plastics need fillers?

Some plastic resins get blended with fillers to reduce costs. Properly used mineral fillers, however, can improve a plastic’s moldability and stability. They can also increase the plastic’s heat-deflection temperature, reduce thermal expansion, and change other performance characteristics as well.

What is plasticizer in PVC?

Plasticizers are used to convert PVC, a rigid plastic, into a soft, flexible, and elastic material. A plasticizer that is compatible with PVC and exhibits low volatility, good permanence, and high efficiency is referred to as a primary plasticizer.

What are fillers in rubber?

The non-black fillers for rubber are calcium carbonate, kaolin clay, precipitated silica, talc, barite, wollastonite, mica, precipitated silicates, fumed silica and diatomite. Of these, the three most widely used, by volume and by functionality, are calcium carbonate, kaolin clay and precipitated silica.

What are the chemicals used in plastic industry?

Generally, these additives are: hardeners, catalysts, stabilizers containing phenol or amines, blowing agents, lubricants, dyes, fungicides, bactericides and solvents. The most common plastics manufactured are: polyethylene (PE), Poly Vinyl Chloride, (PVC), Polystyrene (PS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®).

Why do manufacturers mix plasticizers with plastics?

Plasticizers are commonly added to polymers such as plastics and rubber, either to facilitate the handling of the raw material during fabrication, or to meet the demands of the end product’s application.

What are the major two components of plastic paste?

Polyethylene, LDPE and HDPE: The most common polymer in plastics is polyethylene, which is made from ethylene monomers (CH2=CH2). The first polyethylene was made in 1934. Today, we call it low-density polyethylene (LDPE) because it will float in a mixture of alcohol and water.

What are general features of an additive?

In general, additives should have the following features unless by virtue of their function such requirements are excluded: (1) They should be efficient in their function. (2) They should be stable under processing conditions. (3) They should be stable under service conditions.

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